Academic Word List

A Project for Teaching and Learning Academic English Vocabulary

Friday, 12 06th

Last updateFri, 05 Sep 2014 10am

AWL Dictionary

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analyse (verb) /æn.əl.aɪz/

Meaning: To study or examine something in detail, in order to discover more about it

  1. We have to analyse each problem in order to understand it completely
  2. The committee presented budget analysis for the current financial year.
  3. He carried our multiple analyses before reaching his conclusions.
  4. She analysed the samples received through her survey.

evident /’ev.ɪ.dənt/

Meaning: easily seen or understood


  1. It was quite evident that the students were excited about the excursion.
  2. He had no evidence of his innocence in the crime.
  3. Parents’ love for their children is evident in all that they do for them.
  4. Her anxiety was evident in her expressions.

estimate /’es.tɪ.meɪt/

Meaning: to guess the cost, size, value, etc. of something:


  1. He estimated the cost required for building a new laboratory.
  2. It was estimated that the duration of the event will be at least five days.
  3. It was not easy for the government to estimate the number of people died in the riots.

derive /dɪ’raɪv/

Meaning: to get something from something else:


  1. The research cell derives all the funding from government agencies.
  2. He derives peace and satisfaction from meditation and Yoga.
  3. The research student derived his conclusions from a systematic analysis of data.

context /’kɒn.tekst/

Meaning: The situation within which something exists or happens, and that can help explain it:


  1. Shakespeare’s Richard II has a historical context.
  2. India’s freedom struggle is a significant phase in the context of Indian history.

constitute /’kɒn.stɪ.tju:t/

Meaning: To be or be considered as something:


  1. Her final year result constitutes a major achievement for her.
  2. The defeat in the general election constituted a serious setback for the leader.

consist /kən’sɪst/

Meaning: Consist of: to be made of or formed from something OR Consist in: to have something as a main and necessary part or quality


  1. The committee consisted of 15 members.
  2. This recipe consists of a lot of Indian spices.
  3. His intelligence consisted in his hard work, sincerity and presence of mind.
  4. For some people, peace consists in their spirituality and submission to God.

assume (verb) /ə’sju:m/

Meaning: To accept something to be true without question or proof:


  1. I assumed he knew the rules and regulations of the institute but he didn’t.
  2. The assumption that the teachers know everything is not correct.
  3. Let’s assume we have our examination tomorrow and start preparing accordingly.
  4. She assumed I was aware of the topic of discussion.

assess (verb) /ə’ses/

Meaning: To judge or decide the amount, value, quality, or importance of something:


  1. The students were assessed for their communicative competence in English.
  2. Self-assessment is essential for identifying one’s strengths and weaknesses.
  3. She assessed the cost of the required material.
  4. Continual assessment of the learners’ progress is an important part of teaching and learning.

interpret /ɪn’tɜ:.prɪt/

Meaning: to decide what the intended meaning of something is


  1. It is difficult to interpret when someone uses ambiguous language.
  2. He interpreted my statement differently and hence felt offended.
  3. Interpreting you problem correctly is an essential step in problem-solving.

affect /ə’fekt/

Meaning: to have an influence on someone or something, or to cause a change in someone or something


  1. Pollution adversely affects our health.
  2. The poor in India are severely affected by inflation.
  3. His inspiring words affected my attitude towards self.
  4. Smoking badly affects the functioning of liver.

aspect /’æs.pekt/

Meaning: one part of a situation, problem, subject, etc.


  1. Students must be familiar with all the aspects of JAVA programming.
  2. Survey of literature is an important aspect of research work.
  3. We have to look at the problem from every aspect.

community /kə’mju:.nə.ti/

Meaning: the people living in one particular area or people who are considered as a unit because of their common interests, social group, or nationality


  1. The social worker dedicated his life for uplifting his community.
  2. This region is populated by the Hindu community.
  3. The gay community is fighting for its rights.

consequent /’kɒn.sɪ.kwənt/

Meaning: happening as a result of something


  1. The overuse of pesticides on plants consequently affects the health of consumers.
  2. Deforestation and the consequent industrialization cause harm to the environment.
  3. People must be aware of the harmful consequences of pollution.

consume /kən’sju:m/

Meaning: to use fuel, energy, or time, especially in large amounts or to eat


  1. The consumption of fuel is very high in India.
  2. Over consumption of non-renewable energy sources must be reduced.
  3. A large number of people consume tobacco in India.
  4. She consumed a lot of time in explaining the concept.

distinct /dɪ’stɪŋkt/

Meaning: clearly noticeable; that certainly exists


  1. Hard work is one of his distinct qualities.
  2. This place is filled with a distinct fragrance.

evaluate /ɪ’væl.ju.eɪt/

Meaning: to judge or calculate the quality, importance, amount, or value of something


  1. The ISO evaluates the quality processes adopted by a company or institute.
  2. The teacher evaluated all the essays written by the students.
  3. The final results were evaluated to know their authenticity.

perceive /pə’si:v/

Meaning: to come to an opinion about something, or have a belief about something


  1. For ages, the upper class perceived the Shudras as untouchables.
  2. People have different perceptions about the existence of God.

region /’ri:.dʒən/

Meaning: a particular area or part of the world, or any of the large official areas into which a country is divided OR a particular part of someone's body


  1. India has a vast regional variety in terms of weather and geographical conditions.
  2. Rajasthan is a desert region.
  3. Ramesh had a serious infection in the stomach region.

relevant /’rel.ə.vənt/

Meaning: connected with what is happening or being discussed OR correct or suitable for a particular purpose


  1. Knowledge should have relevance in practical life.
  2. Learning has to be relevant to the learners’ needs.

compensate /’kɒm.pən.seɪt/

Meaning: to pay someone money in exchange for something that has been lost or damaged or for some problem


  1. The riot victims will be compensated for their loss and injuries.

component /kəm’pəʊ.nənt/

Meaning: a part that combines with other parts to form something bigger


  1. The company manufactures components for computers.
  2. A router is an important component in computer hardware.
  3. Rice is a regular component of the diet of south Indians.
  4. Eradication of poverty is a key component of the party’s manifesto.

consent /kən’sent/

Meaning: permission or agreement


  1. He cannot go on tour without his father’s consent.
  2. The teacher consented to take an extra session for the students.
  3. Author’s consent is required before publishing a book.

convene /kən’vi:n/

Meaning: to bring together a group of people for a meeting, or to meet for a meeting


  1. The head of the department convened a meeting of his staff members.
  2. The Committee convened before the start of the event.

criteria /kraɪ’tɪə.ri.ə/ plural of Criterion /kraɪ’tɪə.ri.ən/

Meaning: a standard by which you judge, decide about, or deal with something


  1. The employer set some criteria to select his prospect employees.
  2. If you fulfill the criteria, you can be selected.
  3. One criterion of the many criteria was given a special consideration.

deduce /dɪ’dju:s/

Meaning: to reach an answer or a decision by thinking carefully about the known facts


  1. What do you deduce from the given facts?
  2. The intelligence bureau has deduced that the terrorists must have come via sea route.

demonstrate /’dem.ən.streɪt/

Meaning: to show or make something clear OR to show something and explain how it works


  1. These facts demonstrate the size of the problems facing the country.
  2. The teacher demonstrated the use of the new computer application to the students.
  3. The company representative demonstrated the use of its new product.

illustrate /’ɪl.ə.streɪt/

Meaning: to show the meaning or truth of something more clearly, especially by giving examples


  1. The teacher illustrated her point with a diagram on the blackboard.
  2. This presentation will illustrate the theory with a flow chart.

negate /nɪ’ɡeɪt/

Meaning: to cause something to have no effect


  1. The rise in our profit has been negated by the cost of production.
  2. His performance in the interview negated my chances of selection.

volume /’vɒl.ju:m/

Meaning: the amount of space that is contained within an object or solid shape OR the number or amount of something in general


  1. This vessel has a larger volume than that small cup.
  2. The volume of sound is so high that it is causing serious noise pollution.

adequate /’æd.ə.kwət/

Meaning: enough or satisfactory for a particular purpose


  1. We need to have adequate energy sources to generate the required volume.
  2. The students were given adequate time to take the test.
  3. She could not spare adequate time for her preparation.
  4. My mother had cooked adequate food for all those guests.

apparent /ə’pær.ənt/

Meaning: able to be seen or understood OR (before noun) seeming to exist or be true


  1. It was apparent that Mr. Sharma was not happy with the decision.
  2. He lost his temper for no apparent reason.
  3. There is an apparent mistake in your analysis.
  4. Apparently, she did not look after her health

attribute /’æt.rɪ.bju:t/

Meaning: (noun) a quality or characteristic that someone or something has: AND (verb) attribute something to somebody/something


  1. Effective public speaking is an important attribute of a good leader.
  2. My friend possesses several attributes of a good manager.
  3. This quote is attributed to Benjamin Franklin.
  4. His god health can be attributed to his strict diet and regular exercise.

confer /kən’fɜ:r/

Meaning: to exchange ideas on a particular subject, often in order to reach a decision on what action to take: AND to officially give someone a title etc, especially as a reward for something they have achieved


  1. We conferred with one another on a given a topic.
  2. The Principal conferred with his teachers and staff members.
  3. A Bachelor’s degree was conferred on her by the University.

despite /dɪ’spaɪt/

Meaning: without taking any notice of or being influenced by; not prevented by


  1. They went for trekking despite rain.
  2. Despite all the instructions, the participants committed mistakes.
  3. Despite his poor health, he went for the examination

domestic /də’mes.tɪk/

Meaning: relating to a person's own country, place or home


  1. Domestic flights don’t require passport.
  2. Domestic violence against women is a serious crime.
  3. One cannot bring one’s domestic problems to the workplace.

emerge /ɪ’mɜ:dʒ/

Meaning: to appear by coming out of something or out from behind something AND to come to the end of a difficult period or experience


  1. The crimson colour emerged from the horizon.
  2. Ram emerged innocent from the allegation.
  3. India is emerging as a superpower.

ethnicity /eθ’nɪs.ɪ.ti/

Meaning: relating to a particular race of people


  1. The most of the Indian population belongs to the Indo-Aryan ethnicity.
  2. The USA has people belonging to different ethnicities like Anglo-Americans and Anglo-Africans.

implicate /’ɪm.plɪ.keɪt/

Meaning: to show that someone is involved in a crime or partly responsible for something bad that has happened: AND if something is implicated in something bad or harmful, it is shown to be its cause


  1. The allegations implicated him in the crime.
  2. He was implicated in the theft of money.
  3. Mosquitoes are known to be implicated in the increase of some serious diseases.

impose /ɪm’pəʊz/

Meaning: to officially force a rule, tax, punishment, etc. to be obeyed or received: AND to force someone to accept something, especially a belief or way of living


  1. The government has imposed many taxes on the citizens.
  2. The committee has imposed a ban on smoking in premises of the housing society.
  3. People cannot impose their religious beliefs on others.
  4. My parents never imposed their wishes on me.

amend /ə’mend/

Meaning: to change the words of a text, especially a law or a legal document


  1. Our constitution has been amended several times.
  2. We have to amend the laws if they are unjust.
  3. One amendment in the regulations can make a huge difference.

clause /klɔ:z/

Meaning: a particular part of a written legal document, for example a law passed by Parliament or a contract (= an agreement)


  1. The contract has an important clause which says that both the parties are equally responsible for the decisions taken.
  2. Clause 117 in the agreement is quite crucial.

conflict /’kɒn.flɪkt/

Meaning: an active disagreement between people with opposing opinions or principles: AND fighting between two or more groups of people or countries


  1. We should be able to resolve our conflicts.
  2. The conflicts between the Hindus and Muslims have been resolved.
  3. He has a lot of conflict with his boss.
  4. Hatred causes conflicts among the people belonging to different castes.

decline /dɪ’klaɪn/

Meaning: to gradually become less, worse, or lower: AND to refuse


  1. The fame of the actor declined after back to back flop films.
  2. Gradually, the Roman Empire declined.
  3. He declined the new job offer.
  4. I declined my friend’s invitation to the party.

discrete /dɪ’skri:t/

Meaning: having a clear independent shape or form


  1. These two structures are quite discrete in shape and size.
  2. You have to come up with discrete ideas to figure out some solutions to the problem.

entity /’en.tɪ.ti/

Meaning: Something that exists apart from other things, having its own independent existence


  1. The international relations office is a separate entity on the campus.
  2. The southern parts of India are separate cultural entities.

evolve /ɪ’vɒlv/

Meaning: to develop and change gradually over a long period of time AND if an animal or plant evolves, it changes gradually over a long period of time


  1. Human beings have evolved from great apes.
  2. The institute has evolved as the best institute since its inception in 1999.
  3. The teacher has evolved his own new teaching strategy.

facilitate /fə’sɪl.ɪ.teɪt/

Meaning: to make something possible or easier


  1. The new roads are facilitating smooth transport.
  2. The internet centre facilitates access to the internet.
  3. The new biometric system will facilitate the maintenance of attendance record.

notion /’nəʊ.ʃən/

Meaning: a belief or idea


  1.  It is a wrong notion that atheists are not spiritual.
  2. The notion that the social codes must be followed is quite appropriate.
  3. The notion of fraternity is relevant to the contemporary society.

perspective /pə’spek.tɪv/

Meaning: a particular way of considering something


  1. She has given a new perspective to the topic.
  2. Everyone has their own perspective of looking at life.
  3. Ramesh’s perspective on the new policy of the institute is quite different from mine.

acknowledge /ək’nɒl.ɪdʒ/

Meaning: to accept, admit, or recognize something, or the truth or existence of something


  1. I acknowledged that my friend’s help was crucial to me in my work.
  2. We must acknowledge if someone has made an acceptable point in the discussion.
  3. He is acknowledged as one of the best scholars in the area of mobile robotics.
  4.  Let us acknowledge the fact that we need to get rid of corruption.

allocate /’æl.ə.keɪt/

Meaning: to give something to someone as their share of a total amount, for them to use in a particular way


  1. The commission has allocated a funding of Rs 10 lakh for the research project.
  2. The Principal allocated different tasks to his subordinates.
  3. Allocating blames to the innocents is immoral.
  4. The annual budget was separately allocated to each department.

diverse /daɪ’vɜ:s/

Meaning: different or including many different types


  1. India is a culturally diverse country.
  2. People have diverse areas of interests.
  3. Today we have diverse subject areas in Education.

domain /də’meɪn/

Meaning: an area of interest or an area over which a person has control


  1. My domain knowledge in software programming is quite satisfactory.
  2.  The case is out in the public domain.
  3. Teaching is my strongest domain.

exceed /ɪk’si:d/

Meaning: to be greater than a number or amount, or to go past an allowed limit


  1. The time limit must not exceed 2 hrs for the test.
  2. She has exceeded the expectations of her parents in the final examination results.
  3. We must not exceed the normal speed limit while driving in the city.

explicit /ɪk’splɪs.ɪt/

Meaning: clear and exact: AND showing or talking about sex or violence in a very detailed way


  1. The teacher gave explicit instructions on how to use the software.
  2. He narrated his story explicitly.
  3. The censor board declared that the movie had sexually explicit content.

inhibition /’ɪn.hɪ’bɪʃ.ən/

Meaning: a feeling of embarrassment or worry that prevents you from saying or doing what you want


  1.  After the recurrent exposure to the stage situation, one day he lost his inhibition and delivered a very good talk.
  2.  She shed her inhibition and mingled with her new friends.

presume /prɪ’zju:m/

Meaning: to believe something to be true because it is very likely, although you are not certain


  1. He presumed that his friends were coming to attend his wedding.
  2. “You are Mr. White”, I presume.
  3. I presume this year the examination will be held earlier than it was the last year.
  4.  She had presumed that she would be selected as the member of the committee.

trace /treɪs/

Meaning: to find someone or something that was lost: AND to find the origin of something AND discover the cause or origin of something by examining the way in which it has developed


  1. The police are tracing the stolen car.
  2. I tried to trace my friend’s phone number but could not trace it.
  3. The rituals of the Hindu marriage can be traced back to the Vedic times.

transform /træns’fɔ:m/

Meaning: to change completely the appearance or character of something or someone, especially so that they are improved


  1. He has transformed himself into a confident and strong leader.
  2. The westernization has transformed the way we lead our lives.
  3. The Indian agriculture has undergone a remarkable transformation since independence.

adapt /ə’dæpt/

Meaning: to change something to suit different conditions or uses: AND to change to make it suitable


  1. After joining the hostel, he immediately adapted himself to the new living conditions.
  2. The novel was adapted for children.
  3. They had to adapt their plans to suit the company’s timetable.

comprise /kəm’praɪz/

Meaning: to have as parts or members, or to be those parts or members


  1. The committee comprises twenty members.
  2. The course work comprises theory and practical subjects.
  3.  The class is comprised mainly of Indian and Chinese students.
  4. The team is comprised of 11 brilliant players.

dispose /dɪ’spəʊz/

Meaning: to make someone feel a particular way towards someone or something: AND to arrange things or put them in their places AND dispose of something (phrasal verb) = to get rid of or to sell something


  1.  His negative attitude did not dispose me well towards him.
  2. The gifts in the gift gallery were disposed properly.
  3. We must dispose of the waste properly.
  4. I disposed of all my shares at good rates.

empirical /ɪm’pɪr.ɪ.kəl/

Meaning: based on what is experienced or seen rather than on theory


  1. In many cases, the empirical work is essential to support theoretical arguments.
  2. The empirical research was carried out in the chemical laboratory.

hierarchy /’haɪə.rɑ

Meaning: a system in which people or things are arranged according to their importance:


  1.  Every organization has its own hierarchy of officials.
  2. Social hierarchy depicts the stratification of society.
  3. He grew up in the organizational hierarchy to become a departmental manager.

ideology /’aɪ.di’ɒl.ə.dʒi/

Meaning: a set of beliefs or principles, especially one on which a political system, party, or organization is based


  1. He supported the ideology of his political party.
  2. The communist ideology is quite popular in China.

intervene /’ɪn.tə’vi:n/

Meaning: to intentionally become involved in a difficult situation in order to improve it or prevent it from getting worse


  1. My friend deliberately intervened in the discussion to prove his point.
  2. The conflict was resolved when the senior leader personally intervened.

phenomenon /fə’nɒm.ɪ.nən/

Meaning: something that exists and can be seen, felt, tasted, etc., especially something unusual or interesting


  1. Earthquake is a natural phenomenon.
  2. Some people believe in paranormal phenomena.
  3. The phenomenon of photosynthesis in found in plants.

successor /sək’ses.ər/

Meaning: someone or something that comes after another person or thing


  1. Rakesh is the political successor of his father.
  2. The institute is looking for a successor to its Principal.
  3. The modern robots are fast but their successors are much faster.

voluntary /’vɒl.ən.tər.i/

Meaning: done, made, or given willingly, without being forced or paid to do it


  1. We accepted to work for elections voluntarily.
  2. Many employees from this company have taken voluntary retirement.
  3. I like to take voluntary participation in all the co-curricular activities.
  4. Hundreds of student volunteers work for the national robotic contest.

abandon /ə’bæn.dən/

Meaning: to leave a place, thing, or person for ever


  1. That lady had been abandoned by her husband.
  2. They abandoned their vehicle on the road as it had been broken down.
  3. The orphanage welcomed the abandoned child.
  4. As the boat started sinking, we decided to abandon it and then jumped into the river.

accumulate /ə’kju:.mjʊ.leɪt/

Meaning: to collect a large number of things over a long period of time: AND to gradually increase in number or amount


  1. Many politicians have accumulated huge wealth.
  2. They have accumulated a lot of property over the years.
  3. The garbage kept on accumulating in the backyard as nobody was home for a month.
  4. Dust had been accumulated on my vehicle in the parking.

append /ə’pend/

Meaning: to add something to the end of a piece of writing


  1. I appended my resume to the job application letter.
  2. I provided the supporting information in the form of an appendix along with some other appendices.
  3. He appended a glossary of words to his article on cyber organisms.

arbitrary /’ɑ:.bɪ.trər.i/

Meaning: based on chance rather than being planned or based on reason


  1. He does not believe in arbitrary decision making.
  2. Did you plan to go to Goa earlier or was it an arbitrary decision.
  3. Linguistic elements are arbitrary.

complement /’kɒm.plɪ.ment/

Meaning: to make a good combination with someone or something else


  1. His father and mother complement each other perfectly.
  2. Her voice is a nice complement to the classical music.

conform /kən’fɔ:m/

Meaning: to behave according to the usual standards of behavior, that are expected by a group or society


  1. One must conform to the norms of one’s organization.
  2. I had to conform to the given guidelines and hence there was no scope for spontaneity.

deviate /’ɪt/

Meaning: to do something that is different from the usual or common way of behaving


  1.  The flight MH 370 deviated from its regular path.
  2.  The speaker deviated from his topic while delivering his lecture.

inevitable /ɪ’nev.ɪ.tə.bl̩/

Meaning: certain to happen and unable to be avoided or prevented


  1. The accident was inevitable as the driver was driving quite rashly.
  2. This good result was inevitable as he had done a lot of hard work on his studies.

intense /ɪn’tens/

Meaning: extreme and forceful or (of a feeling) very strong: AND a serious individual


  1. He travelled on foot in intense heat to look for the address.
  2. She had been suffering from an intense pain in her stomach since morning.
  3. Ram is an intense young man.

random /’ræn.dəm/

Meaning: happening, done, or chosen by chance rather than according to a plan: AND by chance, or without being chosen intentionally.


  1.  The principal visited the classrooms for a random check.
  2. A random sample was taken for the research work.
  3. One student was randomly selected as the class representative.

attain /ə’teɪn/

Meaning: to reach or succeed in getting something


  1. She has attained the highest marks in English.
  2.  The organization is honestly attempting to attain its goals.
  3.  India attained its freedom on August 15, 1947.

cease /si:s/

Meaning: to stop something


  1. The rain ceased by night.
  2. The organization had to cease its operations due to the strike by its workers.
  3. He has ceased to be answerable to his boss as he has been shifted to another department.

coherent /kəʊ’hɪə.rənt/

Meaning: If an argument, set of ideas, or a plan is coherent, it is clear and carefully considered, and each part of it connects or follows in a natural or reasonable way. C2 If someone is coherent, you can understand what they say


  1. He presented his ideas in a coherent manner.
  2. She spoke coherently as she was well prepared for her lecture.

commence /kə’mens/

Meaning: to begin something


  1.  The college will commence on June 16 after the summer vacation is over.
  2.  The meeting commences on time every week.

distort /dɪ’stɔ:t/

Meaning: to change something from its usual, original, natural, or intended meaning, condition, or shape


  1. Many times the media distorts the actual information.
  2. He distorted the original shape of the clay model.
  3. Barriers to communication distort the real message.

inherent /ɪn’her.ənt/

Meaning: existing as a natural or basic part of something


  1.  Truthfulness is her inherent quality.
  2. There is an inherent risk in trekking.
  3. Sweetness is the inherent quality of sugar.

restrain /rɪ’streɪn/

Meaning: to control the actions or behaviour of someone by force, especially in order to stop them from doing something, or to limit the growth or force of something


  1.  He restrained his anger.
  2.  It was difficult to restrain the wild bull.
  3.  I was so angry that I could not restrain myself.

rigid /’rɪdʒ.ɪd/

Meaning: stiff or fixed; not able to be bent or moved


  1. Iron is a rigid metal.
  2. His father is so rigid that it is almost impossible to convince him.
  3. She rigidly followed her principles.

scenario /sɪ’nɑ:.ri.əʊ/

Meaning: a description of possible actions or events in the future


  1. It is painful to imagine a scenario of utter poverty and unemployment.
  2. What will be the scenario of the world in the next twenty years?

violate /’vaɪə.leɪt/

Meaning: to break or act against something, especially a law, agreement, principle, or something that should be treated with respect


  1. Responsible citizens must not violate the laws of the land.
  2. The Pakistani army has violated the ceasefire agreement several times.
  3. One must not violate professional ethics.

adjacent /ə’dʒeɪ.sənt/

Meaning: very near, next to, or touching


  1. Our cabins are adjacent.
  2. My house is adjacent to the market.

compile /kəm’paɪl/

Meaning: to collect information from different places and arrange it in a book, report, or list


  1. The collected data must be compiled systematically.
  2. The census report is compiled by the government.
  3. You have to compile the facts properly for maintaining a systematic record.
  4. The data received from the survey was compiled for preparing a report.

enormous /ɪ’nɔ:.məs/

Meaning: extremely large


  1.  He has built an enormous house for his family.
  2. The managing director receives an enormous salary.
  3. My friends offered me enormous help when I was in trouble.

incline /ɪn’klaɪn/

Meaning: to (make someone) feel something or want to do something: AND to slope at a particular angle


  1. Many students are inclined to participate in the extra-curricular activities.
  2.  I incline to be an expert in finance.
  3. I have always had an inclination towards cricket.
  4. The line inclines at an angle of 45 degrees.

integrity /ɪn’teɡ.rə.ti/

Meaning: the quality of being honest and having strong moral principles that you refuse to change


  1. That journalist cannot be corrupt as she is the lady of high integrity.
  2. In order to preserve his integrity, he declined an offer of a huge bribe.

intrinsic /ɪn’trɪn.zɪk/

Meaning: being an extremely important and basic characteristic of a person or thing


  1. Sports activities are an intrinsic part of the curriculum.
  2. Honesty is his intrinsic quality.

invoke /ɪn’vəʊk/

Meaning: to use a law in order to achieve something, or to mention something in order to explain something or to support your opinion or action: AND to request help from someone esp. God.


  1. The police can invoke the law of crime against women in order to punish the guilty.
  2.  John Milton invoked the muse before writing Paradise Lost.
  3. He invoked Darwin’s theory to support his point.

nonetheless /’nʌn.ðə’les/

Meaning: despite what has just been said or done


  1. There are many issues facing the country. Nonetheless, we should try to elect right leaders.
  2. The place was beautiful. Nonetheless, we could not imagine staying there for a long time.

reluctance /rɪ’lʌk.təns/

Meaning: an unwillingness to do something


  1. She accepted his invitation with great reluctance.
  2. His reluctance to participate in the debate was quite understandable.
  3. The students were reluctant to attend the last lecture of the day.

undergo /’ʌn.də’ɡəʊ/

Meaning: to experience something that is unpleasant or something that involves a change


  1. He underwent a surgery on his right shoulder.
  2. The Indian society is undergoing a change


About AWL

The AWL is the most recent and widely referred word list for teaching and learning academic vocabulary. The AWL was developed by Averil Coxhead from the Victoria University of Wellington,


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